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Pharmacology - MBBS

 

CURRICULUM AND SYLLABUS UNDER THE NEW REGULATIONS FOR THE M.B.B.S. COURSE OF STUDIES OF PHARMACOLOGY.

THIRD SEMESTER: 

 A. Didactic Lectures                                              40hrs   

   I. General Consideration & Basic Principles                15hrs

       (Introduction, Historical perspective, Pharmacokinetic principles, Pharma-     codynamics, Issues relating to pharmacotherapeutics, Essential Drugs concept, Steps in New Drug Development: Ethics and Regulation).

     II. Autonomic Pharmacology                                         6hrs

         (Introduction, Historical Perspectives, classification of drugs affecting ANS, Muscarinic receptor agonists and antagonists, Adrenergic receptor agonists and antagonists).

    III. Autacoids &Related Pharmacology                          3hrs

          (Introduction, Eicosanoids & NSAIDs, Histamine &Antihistaminics, Bradykinin & its antagonists, Renin-angiotensin system, 5HT & its antagonists).

    IV. Neuropharmacology                                      16hrs

            (Benzodiazepines, Barbiturates, Anticonvulsants, Antiparkinsonian drugs, Neuroleptics, Anxiolytics, Lithium, Antidepressants, General Anaesthetics, Skeletal Muscle Relaxants, Local Anaesthetics, Opioid & Non-Opioid analgesics, Pharmacotherapy of pain & Gout).

 

B. Group Dynamics                                                 40hrs

     (This includes continuous assessment of each student through Item Cards).

 

     I. Problem based Learning/Tutorials                                   25hrs

         In these small group sessions (comprising of 25 students and one teacher facilitator in each group) the students will be required to resolve specific problems that would be designed by the faculty members of the department addressing issues covered in the didactic lectures in this semester.

    II. Student’s seminar to be arranged.                      15hrs

C. Practicals / Demonstration                                 40hrs

   (All practical hours must be small group sessions. Students are required to maintain required to maintain record books  which will be continuously assessed by teacher)

      I. Prescription writing

               Principles & format                                        2hrs

               Abbreviations used, Weights & Measures                2hrs

               Rational Selection of a Drug while prescribing

               (WHO P-drug concept)                                      4hrs

               Writing specific problem-led prescriptions for common ailments.                                                                 10hrs

      (A list of such specific problem-led prescriptions are given in Annexure-1. These may be revised as per the need of the day )

 

II. Therapeutic problem-solving addressing the issues of clinically relevant    10hrs

adverse drug reactions (ADR’s) and adverse drug interactions (DI’s).  

         (Coloured photographs of some typical ARD’s may be used additionally).

            (A list of such therapeutic problems are  given in Annexure-2).

  III. Pharmacy  

 Compounding & Dispensing of some common dosage forms eg. Mixture,     12 hrs

Lotion/ ointment, Powder, etc.                                          

                   

                I) Alkali mixture/S.S. of Magsulph

                II)Carminative mixture.

               III) ORS Powder

               IV) Calamine lotion

                V) Atropine sulphate  ointt.(1%)

               VI) Gamma-benzene hexachloride  ointment(1%).

 

FOURTH SEMESTER

A.  Didactic Lectures                                               30hrs     

    V. Renal Pharmacology.                                           4hrs

         Diuretics & Anti Diuretics

         Drugs for acid –base & Electrolyte balance.

   VI. Cardiovascular Pharmacology.                                 9hrs

          Angina pectoris, Myocardial infraction ,Cardiac arrhythmias, Hyperlipidemias, Hypertension, Heart failure.

  VII. Gastrointestinal Pharmacology                             6hrs

         Laxatives & Non–specific antidiarrhoeals Pharmcotherapy of Peptic ulcer Antiemetic & Prokinetic agents, Drugs for portal hypertension, Pancreatitis, Gall stones, Ulcerative colitis.

  VIII. Haemato-pharmacology.                                    4hrs               

           Haematinics, Coagulants & Anticoagulants,Antithrombotics, Fibrinolytic, Antiplatelet agents.

  IX.  Endrocrine Pharmacology.                              7hrs

            Insulin & Oral hypoglycemic agents, Thyroid and anti thyroid drugs,Corticosteroids, Oral contraceptives, Vitamin D, Parathormone, Calcium homeostasis.

B. Group Dynamics                                         30hrs

 

       I. Problem-based learning / Tutorials similar to 3rd Semester.         20hrs

 

II. Integrated teaching –learning / Student’s seminar.

 

         Topics like Anaemia, Hypertension, Angina pectoris, Peptic ulcer, Oral contraceptives, Rickets, Diabetes mellitus etc. should be dealt in integrated sessions involving other para-clinical (and clinical) disciplines like pathology, Microbiology, Community Medicine etc. In such seminars students will take active part and teachers of different disciplines will act as facilitators. The seminars hours will be treated as common credit hours for the para –clinical disciplines that are directly involved in the concerned topic of discussion .For the logistic convenience, these sessions will not be required to attend at a time. Each session will be of 2 hours duration. They may be scheduled to be held on the last Saturday of each month. The minimum number of such integrated sessions will be 5 in this semester. 

 

C. Practicals /Demonstrations                                    30hrs        

      I. Prescription writing.                                                  6hrs

          Writing specific problem led prescriptions (for common aliments)

     II. Therapeutic problem solving                               4hrs

          Similar to 3rd Semester

     III. Demonstration of different dosage forms, formulations and delivery systems.                                                                                                                                            6hrs

              Tablets, Scored tablets, Capsules, Coated tablets, Drug suspensions, Suppositories, Enema, Eyedrops, Injectables(Ampoules & Vials), Transdermal systems(NTC Patch), Fluid transfusion bottles (Glass vs plastics), Blood Transfusion sets & Donor sets syringes (Tuberculin, Insulin,2 ml, 5 ml, 10 ml, 50ml,)  (Glass  vs Disposable)

           Needles –different sizes.

           Butterfly canula

           Scalp vein sets

           Inhalers, Spacer devices, Nebulizers.

            Different types of packaging: Blister packs, Coloured bottles.

     

       IV. Experimentals.                                    14hrs

             Demonstration of drug effects          

             A.   Animal experiments                         8hrs

                     1.Effects of mydriatics &miotics in Rabbit’s eye.

                     2.Demostration of drug effect in amphibian heart /cat blood pressure  preparation.

                     3.Guinea pigileum

           

             B. Actual patient situation                           6hrs  

                 Visit to the indoor/ in patient’s deptt.

                  (General medicine, Pediatrics, or Maternity ward.) to oversee the drug prescribing and utilization.

FIFTH SEMESTER 

 

A.  Didactic Lectures                                   30hrs

      X.Respiratory System Pharmacology             2hrs

           Pharmacotherapy of Cough

           Drug therapy of Bronchial Asthma.

      XI. Chemotherapy & Anti-infectives                               14hrs

            General consideration ,Antiseptics and disinfectants

            B-lactam antibiotic, Aminoglycosides, Tetracyclines, Chloromphenicol, Macrolides, Quinolones & Sulphenamides,  Antiamoebic, Anti tubercular, Anti fungal and  Antiviral drugs with pharmacotherapy of AIDS.

      XII. Cancer Chemotherapy                                 2hrs

              Principles & general  consideration

             Treatment approach in some common malignancies.  

    XIII. Immunopharmacology                             1hrs              

             Immuno suppressants & Immunostimulants .

            Vaccines & Sera.

   XIV. Toxicology                                            3hrs

            Drug overdose & poisoning

            Heavy metals & Metal antagonist

            Environmental toxicants & Drug dependence, Drug abuse, Adr monitoring                                           

  XV.  Miscellaneous                                                 8hrs

           Vitamins & minerals

           Dental Pharmacology

           Dermatopharmacology

           Ocular pharmacology

           Drugs & uterine motility

           Drugs used in medical emergencies

           Rational use of drugs/Rational therapy

           Gene therapy

           Drug prescribing in Pregnancy, Infants and Children, Geriatric patients and Hepato-renal insufficiency.

B. Group Dynamics                                                            30hrs   

     I. Problem-based learning / Tutorials                           20hrs

    II. Integrated learning / Students seminar                                                           10hrs            

         Similar to that in 4th Semester.

Seminar topics: Bronchial asthma, Rational use of antibiotics, Tuberculosis, Malaria, Worm infestations, Management of poisons, Vaccine preventable diseases, Acute Respiratory Infection and Diarrhoeal Disorders in  Children.

 C. Practicals/Demonstrations                                  30hrs

     I. Prescription writing        

        Writing specific problem related prescription ( for common aliments )     8hrs

    II. Therapeutic problem solving                              6hrs

 

    III. Pharmacy                                  10hrs

a) Criticism of prescription                          6hrs

 b) Developing critical appraisal skill in scanning information from                4hrs

           i) Pharmaceuticals Promotional Literature

         ii) Package Inserts/ Patient Information Leaflets

       iii) Published Documents in Independent Medical Journals.

IV. Experimentals                                                    6hrs                             

       Actual Patient Situation

       a) Visit to the General Emergency to oversee the management of any one Medical/Surgical Emergency.

      b) Visit to the surgical Operation Theatre to over see the effects of drugs used  anaesthetic practice.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

Annexure-1(A list of problem-led prescriptions)

 

  1. A drug for “TYPHOID FEVER”.
  2. A drug for “BACILLARY DYSENTRY”.
  3. A drug for “DUDENAL ULCER”.
  4. A drug for “AMOEBIC DYSENTRY”.
  5. A drug for “TONIC CLONIC SEIZURES”.
  6. PURGATIVE FOR RADIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION.
  7. A drug for “MULTI-BACILLARY LEPROSY”.
  8. A drug for “TINEASIS”.
  9. A drug for “URINARY TRACT INFECTION”.
  10. A drug for “ACUTE BACTERIAL CONJUNCTIVITIS”.
  11. A drug for “FILARIASIS:”
  12. A drug for “ACUTE GOUT”.
  13. A drug for “NAUSEA AND VOMITING”.
  14. A drug for “UNCOMPLICATED PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS.”
  15. A drug for “MIXED WORM INFESTATION”.
  16. A drug for “MIGRAINE”.
  17. A drug for “SYPHILIS”.
  18. A drug for “GONORRHOEA”.
  19. A drug for “ACUTE ATTACK OF ANGINA PECTORIS”.

 

Annexure-2 (DRUG INTERACTION)

 

  1. Amoxicilin & Clavulanic Acid.
  2. Metronidazole& Ethylalcohol .
  3. Ciprofloxacin &Theophylline.
  4. Aspirin &Warfarin.
  5. Rifampicin & Cobined OCP.
  6. Chloroquine & Alkali mixture.
  7. Sucralfate &Antacid.
  8. L-dopa & Pyridoxine.
  9. Propranolol & Verapamil.
  10. Digoxin & Hydroclorothiazide.
  11. Chlorpropamide & Dicommurol.
  12. Gentamycin & gallamine.
  13. Lithium & Thiazide.
  14. Propranolol & Insulin.
  15. Enalapril & Spironolactone.

 

Annexure-3 (THERAPEUTIC PROBLEMS ) 

  1. A 10 year old school girl suffering from mild exercise induced bronchial asthma has been treated with a metered does inhaler containing 500g of Terbutaline per inhalation as and when required, which effectively controls the individual attack. However, she has attacks of wheezing every 3 to 4 weeks occurring during exercise even after above treatment schedule.

What treatment should now be given to reduce the frequency of attacks?

  1. A 16 years old girls has admitted to the emergency department with severe short of breath. She is diagnosed as acute bronchial asthma. She has been using metered dose inhalation of Salbutamol, Ipratropium and Beclomethasone. In spite of the above treatment, the present attack is not controlled.

      What will be her immediate treatment?

  1. A 69 year old woman suffering from congestive heart failure has been treated with 0.25 mg Digoxin tablet daily for last 3 months. But the heart failure is not controlled adequately.

What will be the treatment to control the heart failure adequately?

  1. A 45 year old male patient with history of smoking presented with exertional retrosternal compressing pain radiating to the left arm and lasts for 2-5 minutes. The pain is relieved after taking rest. After proper investigation, he has been diagnosed as a case of stable angina pectoris.

What will be the treatment to control the attack?

  1. A 45 old patient suffering from  angina pectoris was on treatment with isosorbide dinitrate. He is admitted to the hospital with severe chest pain and sweating and diagnosed to be a case of acute myocardial infarction.

What will be the management of this patient?

  1. An overweight middle aged man is found to be hypertensive while attending a clinic for medical cheek up. His B.P. is 170/105 mm of Hg on two successive observations.

What will be the treatment for this patient?

  1. A 58 year old man with history of severe hypertension for 20 years, which was well controlled with medication. He stopped taking drugs for a prolonged period. His blood pressure is found to be 240/135 mm of Hg with papillaedema.

What will be the management of this case?

 8.   A 25 year old lady is brought to emergency unit by her family members. She is       unconscious with constricted pupils and froth coming out of her mouth. She is reported to consume an organo-phosphorus insecticide.                                          

           How will you manage the case?

        9  A middle aged person was watching  T.V. in dark ,suddenly develops pain in right eye, vomiting and blurring of vision. On examination, right pupil is dilated, sluggishly reacting to light with raised intra-ocular pressure. The condition is diagnosed as a case of acute congestive glaucoma.

What will be the medical management of this clinical condition?                                                                                                                            

10.      A 20 year old diabetic man on insulin therapy suddenly developed fever and  Missed his usual doses of insulin and became unconscious. 

What measures will you take to manage this condition?       

11.      A middle aged diabetic patient with oral anti-diabetic agent (Tolbutamide)  underwent prolonged exercise and missed his usual breakfast. He developed unconsciousness, respiratory distress and profuse sweating with tachycardia. 

How will you manage the case? 

12.      A person is willing to travel an endemic area of malaria. What chemoprophylaxis has to be given to him? 

Subsequently, he developed chloroquine-resistant malaria. How will you manage the case?         

13.      A male patient develops fever with chill and rigor. P. vivax is found in his blood smear. 

What will be the management of this case?                                                                                                                                                                                                         

14.      A woman in 2nd trimester pregnancy is found to be moderately anemic on routine antenatal check-up. 

What will be the management of this case ?  

15.      A 6 year old boy while playing in a village ground was beaten by a snake. The snake was identified as a poisonous one. 

How will you manage this case? 

16.  A patient with chronic psychiatric illness was treated with largactil (chlorpromazine) for a      prolonged    period. He developed tremor, bradykinesia and rigidity 

       What treatment should be given to the patient without stopping the drug ?

 

 

ITEM CARD OF PHARMACOLOGY

CONTINUOUS DAY-TO-DAY ASSESSMENT

 

NAME:                                                             COLLEGE:

ROLL NO:                    BATCH:                                       SESSION

 

Signature of teacher-in-charge                       Signature of the H.O.D.

 

THIRD SEMESTER:THEORETICALS

               ITEM

DATE

TOTAL MARKS

MARKS OBTAINED

 

EXAMINER

I. GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY

Historical considerations, Steps of drug development, Dosage forms, Drug delivery systems Routs of drug administration, Pharmacokinetics, Phamacodynemics, Factors affecting therapeutic outcome, Drug prescribing in altered physiological states (Pregnancy and lactation, neonates and elderly, hepatic and renal impairment), Essential drugs concept, Rational use of drugs and Good prescribing practice.

 

15

 

 

II. AUTONOMIC PHARMACOLOGY

Basic considerations, Muscarinic& Adrenergic receptor agonists and antagonists.

 

15

 

 

III. AUTACOIDS & RELATED PHARMACOLOGY

Eicosanoids, Histamine & antihistaminics, 5HT & drugs used in Migraine, Kinins and Angiontensin.

 

15

 

 

IV. NEUROPHARMACOLOGY

Benzodiazepines & Barbiturates, Drug treatment of Parkinsonism & Epilepsy, Neuroleptics & Anxiolytics, Antidepressants & Lithium, Drugs used in Anaesthetic practice including Neuromuscular blocker, Opioids & non-opioid analgesics and Pharmacotherapy.

 

15

 

 

 

THIRD SEMESTER: PRACTICALS

 

 

          ITEM

 

 

 

DATE

 

TOTAL

MARKS

 

MARKS

OBTAINED

 

EXAMINER

I. Prescription writing

II.Therapeutic problem solving

III. Pharmacy

IV. Experimentals

V. Criticism of prescription

 

 

15

15

15

15

15

 

 

 

FOURTH SEMESTER: THEORETICALS

 

 

                     ITEM

 

 

DATE

 

TOTAL

MARKS

 

MARKS OBTAINED

 

EXAMINER

I. RENAL PHARMACOLOGY

Diuretics & Antidiuretics, Drugs for BHP; Drugs for ACID-BASE and Electrolyte imbalance,

 

15

 

 

II. CARDIOVASCULAR PHARMACOLOGY

Drug therapy of CHF, Hypertension, Hyperlipidemias, Cardiac Arrhythmias and in Ischaemic heart diseases.

 

15

 

 

III. GASTROINTESTINAL

 PHARMACOLGY

Drug treatment for peptic ulcer, laxatives & antidiarrhoeals, Antiemetics & prokinetics agents and drugs for portal hypertension, pancreatitis, Gallstones and ulcerative colitis.

 

15

 

 

IV. HAEMAOPHARMACOLOGY

Iron, folic acid, Treatment of anaemias, Heparin and anticoagulants; Antithrombotic and fibrinolytic & antiplatelet agents.

 

15

 

 

V. ENDOCRINE PHARMACOLOGY

Insulin & Oral hypoglycemics, Thyroid & antithyroid drugs, Estrogens & Antiestrogens, Oral contraceptives, Androgens & antiandrogens, Corticosteroids, Calcium, Vitamin D, Parathormone & calcitonin.

 

15

 

 

FOURTH SEMESTER: PRACTICALS

ITEM

DATE

TOTAL

MARKS

MARKS

OBTAINED

EXAMINER

I. PRESCRIPTION

II. THERAPEUTIC PROBLEM SOLVING

III.PHARMACY

IV.EXPERIMENTALS

V. CRITISM OF PRESCRIPTION

 

15

15

 

15

15

15

 

 

FIFTH SEMESTER: THEORETICALS

ITEM  

DATE 

TOTAL

MARKS

MARKS

OBTAINED

EXAMINER

I. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Pharmacotherapy of cough and Pharmacotherapy of bronchial asthma.

 

 

 

 

15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

II. CHEMOTHERAPY & ANTI-INFECTIVES

Beta-lactam antibiotics, Quinolones & Sulfonamides, Aminoglycosides, Tetracyclines, Chloramphenicol & Macrolides, Drug therapy of tuberculosis and leprosy, Antivirals and drug treatment of AIDS, Antifungals, Anthelmintics & antiamoebics and drug treatment of malaria & Kala-azar.

 

 

 

15

 

 

 

 

III. CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY

Principles & general considerations & Methotrexate, Cyclophosphamide, vinca alkaloids and Corticosteriods and others

 

15

 

 

IV. IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY

Vaccines & sera, Immuno modualators.

 

15

 

 

V. TOXICOLOGY

Heavy metal poisoning & drug poisoning & treatment, Drug dependence & treatment and ADR monitoring center & poisoning information center.

 

15

 

 

VI. MISCELLANEOUS  

Drugs & uterine motility and Vitamins & Nutrients

 

15

 

 

FIFTH SEMESTER: PRACTICALS

 

                ITEM

DATE

TOTAL

MARKS

MARKS

OBTAINED

EXAMINER

I. PRESCRIPTION

II. THERAPEUTIC PROBLEM SOLVING

III.PHARMACY

IV.EXPERIMENTALS

V. CRITISM OF PRESCRIPTION

 

15

15

15

15

15

 

 

                       

  

ASSESSMENT OF STUDENTS:

1.Internal Assessment:

    Theoretical                         …….15marks

     Practical                             …….15 marks

       Assessment of theoretical and practical are to be done through day-to-day assessment (Weekly /fortnightly) through ITEM CARDS and THREE PERIODICAL Examination at the end of 3rd ,4th & 5th Semester .

Assessment for practical will also be done through day to day evaluation of the students’ performance in the Practical Record Book. No Marks should be separately allocated for Practical Record Book- but its maintenance must be made mandatory.

Marks of Theory + oral and Practical are to be computed separately.

 

 

            Written/Oral

            Practical

 

 

Full marks

Marks obtained

Full marks

   Marks obtained

 

At the end of first semester

50

 

25

 

 

At the end of second semester

50

 

25

 

 

At the end of third semester

50

 

25

 

 

Periodical Institutional Assessment Examination:

Final Internal Assessment:  PHARMACOLOGY

Continuous day to day Assessment

Periodical Assessment

Total Internal Assessment

Theory/oral(a)

       7.5

Practical(b)

     7.5

Theory/oral(c)

      7.5

Practical(d)

     7.5

Theory/oral(a+c)

7.5+7.5=15

Practical(b+d)

7.5+7.5=15

 

 

 

 

 

 

Signature of  the Principal                                      Signature of the H.O.D

                     

PHARMACOLOGY

 Module of Questions:                                          

Paper-I                                                                                 Total : 40 Marks 

1.General Pharmacology

2.Autonomic Pharmacology

3.Cardiovascular Pharmacology

4.Renal Pharmacology including Acid-base and fluid-electrolyte balance

5.Respiratory Pharmacology

6.Haematopharmacology

7.Vitamins and micronutrients

8.Toxicology including Heavy metals antagonist

Q. 1Applied part of Pharmacology(Therapeutics)                         10 marks

Q. 2 + Q. 3 + Q. 4                      (9+9+12)          30 marks 

(Each question to be answered in a separated answer script)

  Explain why? Short note; Mechanism of action.

  Compare and Contrast; Effects of etc; Short questions of above

  types may be set for the examination. No question shall carry more than 3 marks.

Paper-II

1.       Pharmacology of Central nervous system.

2.       Endocrine Pharmacology

3.       Autacoids and immuno-pharmacology.

4.       Skeletal muscle relaxants and local anaesthetics.

5.       Gastrointestinal Pharmacology.

6.       Drugs acting on uterus.

7.       Anti infective and cancer chemotherapy.

8.       Antiseptics, Disinfectants and ecto -parasiticides.

9.       Dermatomucosal agents.

Q. 1. Applied part of Pharmacology (Therapeutics.)                       10 marks

Q.2 + Q.3 + Q.4                                                                    30 marks

 Shall be of Explain Why? Short Notes; Mechanism of action, Compare and Contrast; Effects of etc; Short questions of above types may be set for the examination. No question shall carry more than 3 marks.

 

PHARMACOLOGY ORAL:                             15 marks
 

PHARMACOLOGY PRACTICAL:      Total 25 marks

1. Prescription-one                                                      Total

         Format-                                                                 1                                                                                                     

         Writing-                                                                                            1

        Oral Crossing-                                                       2

           Total:                                                                 4

2. Pharmacy- one item

        Preparation & Labeling-                                      2

       Oral Crossing-                                                       2             

              Total:                                                             4

3. Therapeutic Problem – One

        Correct interpretation of

        Therapeutic Situation

         In writing                                                              2

         Oral Crossing                                                        2

        Total:                                                                     4

4.  Drug interaction-one

          Interpretation in writing-                                   2

          Oral Crossing-                                                   2

              Total:                                                              4

5.  Experimental Pharmacology

            Chart and diagram on        

            Experiments demonstrated                 Identification-2

            In Practical classes &                         Interpretation-2

            charts on pharmacokinetics                                              

                Total:                                                              4

6.  Sample based Knowledge testing-                          2

            Two samples per question in writing

7.  Criticism of prescription -                                       3 ( Oral table)

Total:                                                                              25

 

Practical Notebooks-     Two

          One-Therapeutics Record Book-Containing patterns utilization of drugs in emergency and in-patient departments.

          One-Pharmacy.

Practical Note-books must be submitted in practical Examination- without which students are NOT ALLOWED to appear.

 

MODEL QUESTION 

PHARMACOLOGY

FIRST PAPER

FULL MARKS - 40                                                                      Time 2 hrs

 The figure in the margin indicate full marks.

Candidates are required to give their answer s in their own words as far as practicable.

 1. Outline the therapeutic regime for a case of hypertension with reference to the advantages and

    disadvantages    of ACE inhibitors.           7+3

Or

     How do you treat a case of  anaemia in Pregnancy (Early pregnancy term & late pregnancy )?

     How will you treat Drug induced anaemias ?

 2. Explain why (any three)

a) salbutamol is used in bronchial asthma.

b) Presumide is called high ceiling diuretic.

c) Dimercaprol is used in heavy metal poisoning.

d) Atropin substitues are used in Drug induced Parkinsoniism.                                                             

 3.What are the effects of (any three) :          3+3+3

a) atropine on eye

b) aspirin on platelrt function.

c) Mannitol in the treatment of oedema.

d) Digoxin in atrial flutter.

 4. Write short notes on (any four) :                               3+3+3+3

a) fixed does combination

b) sublingual route of administration

c) 'P' - drug concept

d) zero-order kinetics of drug elimination

e) neostigmine

 

 

PHARMACOLOGY

SECOND PAPER

 

Full marks - 40                                                                      Time - 2 hrs 

The figures in the margine indicate full marks

Candidate s are required to give their answer s in their own words as far as practicable

 1. Discuss briefly the drug treatment of Chloroquin sensitive and Chloroquin resistant falcifarum

    malaria. How  will you treat a case of cerebral malaria.                   3+3+4

Or

    Describe the drug treatmant of acute thyrotoxicosis. How do you prepare the Patient for surgery ? 6+4

 2. Explain why (any three)                                        3+3+3

a) oxotocin is used for induction of labour.

b) Calvulanic acid combined with amoxicillin.

c) Morphine is contradicted in head injury.

d) Allopurinol is used in chrinic gout.

 3.What are the effects of (any three) :                                          3+3+3

a) iodides and iodine in thyroid disorders.

b) Benzhexol in parkinsonian disease.

c) Morphine in respiratory function.

d) Methotrexate in autoimmune disorders.

 4.Write short notes on any four of the following :                    3+3+3+3

a) d-penicillamine.

b) Clofazimine

c) Norfloxacin

d) Rosiglitazone

e) Emergency contraceptives.

 


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